Beans Farming in Nigeria – A Guide on How to Grow Cowpea

October 7, 2021


Beans farming is quite popular in Nigeria. Beans also called cowpea is one of the most consumed food items in Nigeria. Almost everybody eats beans in one form or the other in Nigeria.

Beans farming is simply the cultivation of beans from the stage of seeding to the final stage of harvesting.

To grow beans or cowpea in Nigeria, you need to get a farmland, prepare the farmland, plant the cowpea seeds, fertilise the cowpea plants, use pesticides for pests and disease control and harvest the matured beans pods.

The yield of beans per hectare in Nigeria varies from 0.2 tonnes to 3 tonnes.

beans farming in nigeria

Beans Farming Business Plan in Nigeria

Financial Plan (in Naira)

Cost of Drip Irrigation
          625,000.00
Installation of Drip Irrigation System
On Site Training of staff in precision farming
Soil and Water Analysis
          625,000.00
Fertilisers:
SSP (4 bags)
            40,000.00
            40,000.00
Pesticides:
Insecticides (10 bottles)
            30,000.00
Fungicides
            10,000.00
            40,000.00

PROFIT ANALYSIS FOR ONE HECTARE OF BEANS FARMING VENTURE- SCENARIO 1

Revenue:
20 bags of beans @ N60,000
       1,200,000.00
Cost:
Rent of one hectare of farmland
            25,000.00
Fertiliser
            40,000.00
Manure
            50,000.00
Pesticides
            40,000.00
Seeds
            36,000.00
Labour for 3 months
          120,000.00
Knapsack Sprayer
            15,000.00
Farm Tools
            15,000.00
          341,000.00
Profit
          859,000.00

PROFIT ANALYSIS FOR ONE HECTARE OF BEANS FARMING VENTURE- SCENARIO 2

Revenue:
20 bags of beans @ N40,000
          800,000.00
Cost:
Rent of one hectare of farmland
            25,000.00
Fertiliser
            40,000.00
Manure
            50,000.00
Pesticides
            40,000.00
Seeds
            36,000.00
Labour for 3 months
          120,000.00
Knapsack Sprayer
            15,000.00
Farm Tools
            15,000.00
          341,000.00
Profit
          459,000.00

PROFIT ANALYSIS FOR ONE HECTARE OF BEANS FARMING VENTURE- SCENARIO 3

Revenue:
20 bags of beans @ N30,000
          600,000.00
Cost:
Rent of one hectare of farmland
            25,000.00
Fertiliser
            40,000.00
Manure
            50,000.00
Pesticides
            40,000.00
Seeds
            36,000.00
Labour for 3 months
          120,000.00
Knapsack Sprayer
            15,000.00
Farm Tools
            15,000.00
          341,000.00
Profit
          259,000.00

NOTES/ASSUMPTIONS

The profit analyses above were done using three scenarios (best case, mid case and worst case).

Drip Irrigation: The cost of drip irrigation kit per hectare of beans farm is N625,000. If you rely on rains, you do not need drip irrigation.

Fertilisers: N40,000 is expected to be spent on fertilisers for one hectare of beans farm. The use of Single Super Phosphate fertilizers or any other phosphate fertilizer is advised. Potassium fertilizer like MOP can also be used.

Pesticides: N40,000 is expected to be spent on pesticides (insecticides and fungicides), however, you should note that the total cost to be spent on pesticides will depend on the intensity of pests and diseases on your farm.

Sales Revenue: It is assumed that 20 bags of 100kg of beans will be harvested from one hectare of beans farmland. The yield can be more than 20 bags or less than 20 bags, it depends on your agronomic practices and other factors.

The price of a bag of beans varies from N30,000 – N60,000 every year in Nigeria. A sales revenue of N1.2 million is assumed in the best case.

Manure: N50,000 is expected to be spent on manure. Some farmers may get manure at little or no cost.

Seeds: 30kg of seeds is expected to be used for one hectare. Each kg of seeds cost about N1,200.

Cost of Labour: The cost of labour for 6 months is assumed to be N120,000. Please note that the cost of labour varies according to location and cost of living in the location where your farm is situated.

Knapsack Sprayer: The cost of one knapsack sprayer is expected to be N15,000.

Farm Tools: N15,000 is expected to be spent on this.

How to start beans farming in Nigeria

To be successful in beans farming, the following steps have to be taken:

Get a farmland

Having a suitable farmland is a must for beans farming. You should get a farmland with a fertile soil. Nigeria has a vast land area; you can get farmland in any state of the country. Getting farmlands in the rural areas may be cheaper.

Beans can be cultivated in any part of Nigeria. Yes, cowpea is mostly grown in the northern part of Nigeria. It can also be grown in the southern part of the country. There are beans farmers in Oyo state and Ondo state.

Soil Preparation

Soil preparation is beneficial for beans farming. Cowpea prefers soils that are well loose with good water draining capacity. Clay soil is not good for the growing of cowpea. The soil should have humus.

The first step in land preparation is the removal of trees, stumps and weeds. Bulldozers can  be used to remove the trees and stumps. However, care must be exercised so that the top soil will not be removed.

Plowing, harrowing and ridging also have to be done. These can be done with the use of tractors. Some farmers use no till farming concept for the growing of cowpea.

Engagement of staff members

Your staff members can make or mar your goal of having a successful cowpea farm. You should engage labourers who are skilled in the growing of beans. If your farm is big, it is advised that you engage agronomists with hands on experience.

Do not employ people with big paper certificates in agronomy without any hands on experience.

Procure Fertilisers

It is advised that you do a soil test before applying fertilisers to your farm. Cowpea is a leguminous crop; you may not need to use a nitrogen fertilizer.

Phosphate fertilisers like Single Super Phosphate (SSP), Triple Super Phosphate (TSP) and Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) can be used.

Manure can also be added to the soil. During the flowering stage of the crop, potassium fertilizer like Muriate of Potash (MOP) can be used.

Pesticides

You need pesticides like insecticides, fungicides and nematicides etc. for your cowpea crop. Beans attract a lot of pests, without the right pesticides, you may not harvest a single grain of beans from your farm.

The pesticides can be used for preventative and curative actions.

Farm Management

You need highly skilled people to manage your farm especially if the farm is large. For small farms, the owner can manage the farms themselves.

Poor management of beans farms can lead to poor yield.

Harvest

Beans is usually harvested after 40 days if you plant the 40 day beans variety. Some varieties have a lifespan of above 60 days.

Beans are harvested in pods. The pods have to be broken and the beans removed. The beans are then bagged and stored in a clean dry area.

The harvest of beans can be tedious especially if done by hand. Machines can be used for harvesting if the farm is large.

Storage of harvested beans

Harvested beans are bagged and stored in dry area, mostly in a room. They can also be stored in silos.

Beans attract weevils. Pesticides can be used to prevent weevils and other pests. Neem powder or dust can also be used.

Selling of the harvested beans

Almost everyone eats beans in one form or the other in Nigeria. Beans can be sold in the open markets in Nigeria.

During the harvest period in Nigeria, the prices of beans are low. During the planting season, prices of beans skyrocket.

Varieties of Cowpea (Beans) in Nigeria

The following are the varieties of beans in Nigeria:

  • SAMPEA 19
  • SAMPEA 18
  • FUAMPEA 2
  • FUAMPEA 1
  • SAMPEA 17
  • SAMPEA 16
  • SAMPEA 15
  • SAMPEA 14
  • SAMPEA 13
  • SAMPEA 12
  • SAMPEA 11 -1
  • Nigerian Brown 7
  • Ife Bimpe
  • Popse-1

Planting and Crop Establishment

To plant cowpea, it is advisable to design rows of width of 45cm – 90 cm. The erect or bushy type of varieties can be planted in closer rows.

For the erect variety of beans, about 120,000 plants (30 – 50kg of seeds) can be on one hectare. For the crawling type of beans, about 60,000 plants (12 – 15kg of seeds) be put in one hectare of farmland.

40 days beans in Nigeria

40 days bean variety is a type of beans that matures in 40 days. It is very popular among Nigerian cowpea farmers because of its short maturity time.

Imagine, planting a crop and harvesting within 40 days. The 40 days beans variety has an erect characteristic. It does now crawl on the soil.

Erect cowpea variety are less susceptible to pests and diseases than the crawling variety.

The varieties of beans that mature in 40 days include FUMPEA I and II, SAMPEA 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 and 40 days (Kwankwaso).

‘Kwankwaso’ beans variety is very popular in the northern part of Nigeria because of its 40 day maturity time.

Best month to plant beans in Nigeria

Cowpea can be planted anytime of the year, however, some months are more appropriate for the cultivation of beans than others.

In Nigeria, most farmers cultivate beans towards the ends of the rainy season. The months of July and August are the most preferred months for the growing of beans in Nigeria. This is due to the availability of rainfall and the availability of intense sunlight during the harvest months of September to November.

If you have irrigation, you can cultivate beans anytime of the year. You do not need to wait for some months to come before you plant beans.

How many bags of beans per hectare?

The number of bags of beans you will harvest in your beans farm depend on your agronomic practices and other factors.

The weight of a typical bag of beans in Nigeria is 100 kg. It is not uncommon to see farmers who harvest 10 – 30 bags of beans from one hectare of cowpea farmland.

Types of beans grown in Nigeria

There are mainly two types of beans grown in Nigeria, they are:

White beans

This is a type of cowpea that is white in colour. It is the commonest type of beans in Nigeria. You are likely to see this type of beans in all markets in Nigeria.

Brown beans

Some people also call this type of beans, red beans. It is not as common as white beans. It is pricier than white beans.

Diseases and Pests that Affects Beans Crop

The following diseases and pests affect cowpea:

  • Anthracnose
  • Blight
  • Brown Rust
  • Leaf Spot
  • Powdery Mildew
  • Aphids
  • Root Not Nematodes
  • Bollworm
  • Beetle
  • Grain borer etc.

Do you want to engage in beans farming in Nigeria? If yes, why not contact us for more information and guidance.

{"email":"Email address invalid","url":"Website address invalid","required":"Required field missing"}
>