Components of a drip irrigation system

September 23, 2020


Drip irrigation is one of the most efficient types of irrigation in the world. It allows for the passing of water to the root zones of plants in droplets or trickle manner. For a drip irrigation system to work, it uses some components. The components are vital for a drip irrigation system to irrigate crops.

Main components of a drip irrigation system in Nigeria

Drip Tapes: The drip tapes are the main parts or components of a drip irrigation system. The drip tapes are polythene pipes or tubes laid beside the rows of plants. For the drip tapes to work, they must have emitters attached to them. The emitters may be pre-installed or the removable type. Emitters are fitted at pre-determined intervals on the drip tapes. The intervals can be 20cm, 30cm, 40cm or 60cm etc. Drip tapes come in rolls or bundles of 500 metres, 1000 metres, 1500 metres and 2000 metres etc.

Valves: Valves control the flow of water in the drip irrigation system. They also enable the stopping the flow of water to a zone on the drip irrigated land. Valves can also enable a farmer to channel water flow or supply to areas on his farmland. The valves used in drip irrigation system are similar to that used in plumbing work. There are types of drip irrigation valves that can be controlled by the internet.

Backflow Valve: This type of valve prevents water from flowing back into the source of water. The backflow valve is also called backflow preventer. In drip irrigation systems, some farmers fertigate fertilizers and chemicals to their crops, in order for the farmer to prevent the chemicals not to flow back into his source of water, he can use a backflow valve. The valve will stop the flow back of chemicals into sources of water like river, well, boreholes and dams etc.

Pressure Regulators: All drip tapes have a level or pressure they can work it. If you have a drip tape that can work with 1 bar, your water pressure must not be more than 1 bar, otherwise you damage the drip tape. A pressure regulator can be used to regulate the water pressure. Farmers can use pressure regulators to adjust their water pressure so that they will not damage the drip irrigation system.  A lot of pressure regulators in Nigeria are made with plastic or brass.

Filter: Filters are used in the drip irrigation system for stopping debris, impurities, particles and silt from getting into the drip tapes. Without filters, the drip irrigation system may be rendered unusable. Drip tapes have emitters; impurities getting into the drip system can block the emitters. If the emitters are blocked, the whole drip irrigation system will be unusable as water will not drip out of it again. The filter is usually installed on the main line or pipe in the drip irrigation system. Some filters come in 120 mesh size, 150 mesh size and 100 mesh size etc.

Emitters: These are thin shaped devices on drip tapes or drip tubes. The emitters emit water on to the root zone of plants. Without emitters, the drip irrigation system cannot perform its role of irrigating crops or plants. The emitters are also used to emit chemical and fertilizer solution to the root zones of crops. Emitters can be pre-installed on drip lines, some are also removable. Most emitters on drip tapes emit between 1-4 litres of water per hour.

Mainline: The mainline or main pipe in drip irrigation systems comes from the source of water. The main line brings water to the sub-mains in the drip irrigation system. For small holder farmers, the mainline is usually 2-inch in size. The mainline can be a hose, PVC pipe or galvanized pipe. The mainline is usually very rugged as it can last for up to 20 years in some cases.

Lay Flat Hose Connectors: These are also called croco connectors. The lay flat hose connectors are used to connect the drip tapes or drip tubes to the lay flat hoses. A punch tool is usually used to create holes on the lay flat hose for the lay flat hose connectors to be attached to it.

Venturi Injector: This is a vital component in a drip irrigation system. It is used for fertigation and chemigation. The venture injector is used to inject fertilizer and chemical solution into the drip irrigation system for fertilization of crops.

Other components of a drip irrigation system include take-offs, grommet, manifold, end plugs and dosing pump etc.

You can contact Veggie Concept through sales@veggieconcept.ng or 08025141924 if you need any drip irrigation component.

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