Groundnut Farming (How to Plant Groundnut in Nigeria)

July 4, 2023

Groundnut farming is the process of planting groundnut for the purpose of harvesting the matured groundnuts for domestic, commercial and industrial uses.

Groundnut farming involves all the processes associated with the growing of groundnut. These processes include getting the seeds, land preparation, planting, maintenance of the groundnut plants, harvesting and marketing of the produce.

Groundnut is a leguminous crop. Groundnut can be used for domestic and industrial applications in Nigeria. Groundnut can be eaten as snack. Groundnuts can also be used for making foods. Farmers use groundnuts as a source of protein for animal feeds.

Groundnut is mainly grown in the northern part of Nigeria. It is also grown in the northern part of Oyo state.

Groundnut grows in a well-draining soil with a pH of 5.5 and 7.0.

groundnut farming

Steps to take to start groundnut farming in Nigeria

The following are the steps to plant groundnut in Nigeria:

  • Farmland or Site Selection
  • Climatic Requirements
  • Soil Suitable for Groundnut Farming
  • Soil Preparation
  • Groundnut Variety to Plant
  • Equipment to Use for Groundnut Farming
  • Irrigation
  • Planting of the Groundnut Seeds
  • Weed Control
  • Fertilizer and Manure Management
  • Management of Pests and Diseases
  • Harvesting
  • Post-Harvest
groundnut farming nigeria

1) Farmland or Site Selection

To grow groundnut, you need to find a suitable farmland site. The farmland should have good access road so that the produce of the groundnut farm can be easily evacuated to the market.

The soil to be used for groundnut should be fertile.

2) Climatic Requirements

Groundnut grows in tropical conditions. It grows well in the Savannah belt of Nigeria.

Groundnut requires good sunlight. It also requires water. Groundnut is usually grown in the rainy season in Nigeria.

3) Soil Suitable for Groundnut Farming

Sandy loamy soil is the most suitable soil for groundnut farming in Nigeria. The soil should be well-draining. Groundnut will not produce a high yield if the soil is too heavy and clayey.

The soil pH should be 5.5 – 7.0. Acidic soil should be amended with limestone or dolomite. Limestone will add calcium to the soil and increase the pH.

4) Soil Preparation

The farmland to be used for groundnut farming should be clear of trees, stumps and weeds. If you are using a forest, you may need to clear the trees, stumps and weeds so that you can grow your groundnut crop.

Ploughing, harrowing and ridging should also be done. Several rounds of ploughing may be done so that the soil will be very loose. Ridges can be used to row groundnut if the farmland is in a low lying area.

5) Choosing the Groundnut Variety to Plant

Groundnut generally does well in tropical areas like Nigeria. The groundnut varieties grown in Nigeria include the following:

6) Equipment to Use for Groundnut Farming

The following equipment can be used for groundnut farming

  • Tractors
  • Sprayers
  • Harrowers
  • Plough
  • Farm House
  • Power Tiller
  • Cutlasses
  • Hoes
  • Earth Augers
  • Weeders etc.

7) Irrigation

Groundnut is usually grown under rainfed conditions. However, drio irrigation system, rain guns, rain hose system, centre pivot and flood irrigation are some of the irrigation systems that can be used for groundnut farming in Nigeria.

Groundut crop usually record higher yield when grown under irrigation.

8) Planting of the Groundnut Seeds

Groundnut seeds should be planted in 1 – 2 cm deep hole. The intra row spacing of groundnut plant should be 5 - 15cm while the inter row spacing should be 10cm – 30 cm.

Groundnut farmers in Nigeria use the broadcasting method when sowing their groundnut seeds.

9) Weed Control

The most effective method of weed control in weed farming is the use of herbicides. Legume Force is one of the most effective herbicides for weed control in groundnut farming in Nigeria. There are other good herbicides that can be used for weed control in groundnut farming.

Cultural practices like weeding with hoes and cutlasses can also be used to remove weeds on groundnut farms.

Mulches like plastic mulch and organic mulch can also be used for weed control in groundnut farming.

10) Fertilizer and Manure Management

Groundnut is a leguminous crop, so it fixes its own nitrogen in the soil. Groundnut like other legumes needs fertilizers rich in phosphorus and potassium. Single Super Phosphate (SSP) fertilizer and Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) fertilizer are some of the best fertilizers for groundnut farming in Nigeria.

A soil analysis or test has to be done to know the level of nutrients in the soil before the application of fertilizers.

For farmers using the drip irrigation system, soluble fertilizers can be passed to the root zone of the groundnut plants using the drip irrigation tubings.

11) Management of Pests and Diseases

Pesticides like insecticides, fungicides, bactericides and nematicides etc. can be used to tackle pests and diseases in groundnut farms.

Pesticides like Belt Expert, Decis, Ampligo and Tihan etc. can be used to manage pests and diseases in groundnut plants.

12) Harvesting

Harvesting starts within 110 – 140 days depending on the variety. Harvesting can be done through the use of mechanized harvesters. Harvesting can also be done by hand tools.

13) Post-Harvest

Groundnut is usually sold to big processors like animal feed processors and cooking oil producers. The harvested groundnut is usually packed in 100kg bags.

How Much Does it Cost to Start a One Hectare Groundnut Farm in Nigeria

The cost to start a one hectare groundnut farm is detailed below:

  • Rent of one hectare farmland: ₦20,000
  • Clearing, Ploughing and Harrowing: ₦55,000
  • Seeds: ₦60,000
  • Planting: ₦10,000
  • Irrigation: ₦300,000 – ₦650,000 (Optional)
  • Fertilizers and Manure: ₦25,000 – ₦100,000 (Depending on soil fertility)
  • Pesticides: ₦20,000
  • Others: ₦100,000

FAQ on Groundnut Farming

a) Question: Are there high yielding and early maturing groundnut varieties in Nigeria

Answer: Yes, there are high yielding and early maturing groundnut varieties in Nigeria. You can get these varieties from us.

b) Question: Can irrigation be used for groundnut farming?

Answer: Yes, irrigation can be used for the growing of groundnut. Irrigation can enhance all year growing of groundnut.

c) Question: Is groundnut farming profitable?

Answer: Groundnut farming is profitable if you implement good agricultural practices.

d) Question: What is the average yield of groundnut?

Answer: The average groundnut farmer does 2 -4 tons yield per hectare of groundnut.

e) Question: What fertilizers are good for groundnut farming in Nigeria?

Answer: SSP and DAP fertilizers are the common types of fertilizers used for groundnut farming in Nigeria. However, fertilizers like humates, potassium nitrate and calcium nitrate etc. can also be used for groundnut farming too.

Should you need any information on groundnut farming in Nigeria, kindly contact us through

Read our latest article on the price of groundnut seeds here.

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  • Hi, love your article on groundnut farming and in your estimate for a one hecter farm you indicated that irrigation will cost 300-650k pls what type of irrigation is that? Am preparing for a dry season farm and don’t know of any good but affordable irrigation system to use pls I would be glad if u can educate me on the best and affordable one to use and how to get it thanks. I will be glad to get feedback from you.
    Best Regards

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