In Nigeria, maize yield is usually measured in tons. A 1 hectare farmland can produce a yield of 4 – 10 tons. On the average, 1 hectare can produce 5 tons, which translates to a yield of 5 bags of maize grains per hectare.
For maize farmers who implement poor agricultural practices, they may get as low as 2 tons of maize grains per hectare. For maize farmers that implement good agronomic practices, they may harvest up to 10 tons of dry maize grains per hectare.
The agronomic practices implemented by maize farmers can go a long way to determine the yield of a maize farm.
Factors that can determine the yield of 1 hectare of maize farmland
The following are the factors that determine the yield of a 1 hectare of maize farmland:
The fertility of the soil
The fertility of the soil can determine the yield of a maize farm. A soil rich in nutrients can support a high yield of maize while a soil that is deficient in nutrients can only produce a low maize yield.
If your soil is poor in nutrients, you should amend the soil with fertilizers and manure. A soil test should be done to know the nutrients profile of the soil.
The type of maize seeds planted
Open pollinated maize seeds are not as high yielding as hybrid seeds. Hybrid maize seeds are bred to resist a lot of pests and diseases and also to produce a high yield.
Availability of Water
The availability of water can lead to an increase in in the yield in maize farming. When there is enough rainfall, the yield of a maize farm is likely to increase. A lack of rainfall can lead to a poor yield.
Also, the use of irrigation systems like drip irrigation system can lead to the harvest of more bags of maize from a maize farm.
Pests and Diseases
High incidences of pests and diseases can reduce the yield in maize farming. A pest like army worm can reduce the yield of maize to zero. Some other pests and diseases can also decrease the yield in maize farming.
The use of pesticides and cultural practices can reduce the incidences of pests and diseases.
Weeds can also impact the number of bags of maize that can be harvested from a farmland. Weeds are known to reduce the yield of crops by up to 98%.
Herbicides can be used to address weeds’ problem.
The availability of labour can affect the yield in maize farming.
Inadequate labour on your farm can lead to poor management of the maize crops; this can lead to a dip in the yield of the crop.
What is the yield in your maize farm? If yes, why not share with us in the comments’ section.