Soyabeans farming is the growing of soybeans with the view of harvesting its produce and marketing it. Soyabeans farming involves all the processes from the planting of the soybeans to the harvesting of soyabeans.
Soyabeans is a broad acre crop. It is a staple food in Nigeria. Soybeans is widely used for the production of food for human and animals. It is an important source of protein for human and animal food.
Soyabeans is one of the main components for the preparation of feeds for poultry, fish farming and animal husbandry.
Steps to take to start soyabeans farming in Nigeria
The following are the steps to plant soyabeans in Nigeria:
- Farmland or Site Selection
- Climatic Requirements
- Soil Suitable for Soyabeans Farming
- Soil Preparation
- Soyabeans Variety to Plant
- Equipment to Use for Soyabeans Farming
- Planting of the Soyabeans Seeds
- Weed Control
- Fertilizer and Manure Management
- Management of Pests and Diseases
1) Farmland or Site Selection
Soyabeans as a crop needs to be grown in farmlands that have been well prepared. The farmland should also have good access roads for easy evacuation of the soybeans produce.
The removal of trees and stumps should be done during land preparation. Ploughing, harrowing and ridging should also be done.
2) Climatic Requirements
Soyabeans is a tropical crop. It can only do well in areas that are warm with abundant sunshine. Soybeans will not do well in temperate areas.
Soyabeans crop prefers abundant sunshine. It also needs warmth. The more the sun, the better the soyabeans yield.
3) Soil Suitable for Soyabeans Farming
Sandy loamy soil is the most suitable soil for soybeans farming in Nigeria. The soil should also have a well-draining capacity. Soyabeans will not produce a high yield when grown in pure sandy soil.
The soil pH should be 5.0 – 7.5. Acidic soil should be amended with limestone or dolomite. Limestone will add calcium to the soil and increase the pH.
4) Soil Preparation
If your farmland is heavily forested, you need to do bush clearing depending on the size of the land. Bulldozers can be used to take off the vegetation on the farmland. However, care must be exercised so that the top soil will not be removed.
Ploughing, harrowing and ridging should also be done. Several rounds of ploughing may be done so that the soil will be very loose. For soyabeans farmers growing soyabeans in lowland, ridging may be done.
5) Choosing the Soyabeans Variety to Plant
Hybrid soyabeans varieties are more prolific than the open pollinated varieties. I strongly advise that you plant hybrid soyabeans seeds because they often producer higher yields than the open pollinated soyabeans seeds.
6) Equipment to Use for Soyabeans Farming
The following equipment can be used for soyabeans farming
- Farm House
- Power Tiller
- Earth Augers
- Weeders etc.
Soyabeans can be grown under irrigation. Irrigation van go a long way in increasing the yield of soybeans plants.
The following are the types of irrigation that can be used for soyabeans farming in Nigeria:
- Drip Irrigation
- Sprinkler Irrigation
- Furrow Irrigation
- Spray Tube Irrigation etc.
8) Planting of the Soyabeans Seeds
Soyabeans seeds should be planted in 1 – 2 cm deep hole. The intra row spacing of soyabeans plant should be 10 - 20cm while the inter row spacing should be 20cm – 50 cm.
The following are some soyabeans varieties or seeds in Nigeria:
- Variety: SC-SL01 (S1079/6/7)
- Variety: NCRISOY 2 (TGx 1989-19F)
- Variety: NCRISOY 1 (TGx 1988-5F)
- Variety: TGx 1951-3F (TGx 1951-3F)
- Variety: TGx 1987-62F ()
- Variety: TGx 1987-10F ()
- Variety: TGx 1904-6F ()
- Variety: TGx 1835-10E (TGx 1835-10E)
- Variety: TGX-1448-2E (TGX-1448-2E)
Source: Seed Portal
9) Weed Control
Herbicides can be used for weed control in soyabeans farm. There are selective herbicides that can effectively tackle weeds in soybeans farms.
Cultural practices like weeding with hoes and cutlasses can also be used to remove weeds on soyabeans farms.
Cover crops can also be used for weeds management in soyabeans farming. Plastic mulches and organic mulches like straws can also be used to manage weeds.
10) Fertilizer and Manure Management
Soyabeans is a leguminous crop; it needs more of high phosphorus fertilizers. Phosphatic fertilizers like Single Super Phosphate (SSP) fertilizer, Diammonium Phosphate (DAP) fertilizer and Mono Ammonium Phoshate (MAP) fertilizers should be used.
You should do a soil analysis before applying any fertilizer on your soyabeans farm.
For farmers using the drip irrigation system, soluble fertilizers can be passed to the root zone of the soyabeans plants using the drip irrigation tubings.
11) Management of Pests and Diseases
If you do not effectively manage pests and diseases on your soybeans farm, you may get an abysmal level of yield. Pesticides like insecticides, fungicides, bactericides and nematicides etc. should be applied to the soyabeans plants for effective management of pests and diseases.
Pesticides like Belt Expert, Decis, Ampligo and Tihan etc. can be used to manage pests and diseases in soyabeans farms.
Harvesting starts within 45 – 65 days depending on the variety. Harvesting of matured soyabeans pods can be done with the use of mechanized tools especially if your farm is big. If the soybeans farm is small, hand harvesting can be done.
Harvesting can be done by hand or the use of mechanized harvesters.
Soyabeans is usually sold in the open market after harvest. The harvested soyabeans is usually packed in 100kg bags.
How Much Does it Cost to Start a One Hectare Soyabeans Farm in Nigeria
The cost to start a one hectare soyabeans farm is detailed below:
- Rent of one hectare farmland: ₦20,000
- Clearing, Ploughing and Harrowing: ₦55,000
- Seeds: ₦30,000
- Planting: ₦10,000
- Irrigation: ₦300,000 – ₦650,000 (Optional)
- Fertilizers and Manure: ₦20,000 – ₦100,000 (Depending on soil fertility)
- Pesticides: ₦20,000
- Others: ₦100,000
FAQ on Soyabeans Farming
a) Question: Can I get high yielding and early maturing soyabeans varieties in Nigeria
Answer: You can get high yielding and early maturing soyabeans varieties from us.
b) Question: Can drip irrigation be used for soyabeans farming?
Answer: Yes, drip irrigation can be used for your soybeans farm. It can also increase your soybeans plants’ yield.
c) Question: Is soyabeans farming profitable?
Answer: Soyabeans farming is profitable if you implement good agronomic practices.
d) Question: When is the peak time for the price of soyabeans in Nigeria?
Answer: The dry season months of November to March is the peak time for the price of soyabeans in Nigeria. This is due to the scarcity of soybeans during this period.
e) Question: What is the average yield of soyabeans?
Answer: The average soyabeans farmer does 2 -5 tons yield per hectare of soyabeans.
f) Question: What fertilizers are good for soyabeans farming in Nigeria?
Answer: SSP, DAP and MAP fertilizers are the common types of fertilizers used for soyabeans farming in Nigeria. However, fertilizers like humates, potassium nitrate and calcium nitrate etc. can also be used for soyabeans farming too.
Should you need any information on soyabeans farming in Nigeria, kindly contact us through email@example.com.
Read our latest article on soybeans producing states in Nigeria.