How to Use Urea for Maize Farming

June 2, 2023

Urea is a nitrogenous fertilizer used for the growing of crops. Urea fertilizers usually have 46%-49% nitrogen. It is a fertilizer that is commonly used during the vegetative stage of plants.

Urea fertilizer is one of the commonest types of fertilizers in Nigeria. It is one of the primary fertilizers used for maize farming in Nigeria.

urea fertilizer

How to use urea effectively for maize farming

Soil Testing

A soil test is usually needed before urea fertilizer can be applied to maize plants. The soil test will show the nutrients profile of the soil. This will guide the farmer on the quantity of urea fertilizer to apply to the maize plants. Over-application of urea fertilizer to maize plants can negatively impact their growth.


The timing of the application of urea fertilizer in maize plants is very important. Maize plants usually need more urea fertilizers during their vegetative stage. If you apply too much urea fertilizer during the flowering and fruiting stage of the maize plants, the maize plants may be negatively impacted.

Application Rates

The application rates of urea fertilizer for maize plants depend on the stage of growth of the plants and the soil test result. 150 – 250kg of urea fertilizer is usually applied to one hectare of maize plants in Nigeria.

Under-application of urea fertilizer to maize plants will lead to a low yield as maize is a nitrogen hungry crop.

Application Methods

Urea fertilizer can be applied through broadcasting or base dressing, side-dressing, or fertigation. Fertigation involves the application of soluble urea fertilizers to the root zone of plants through the drip irrigation system.

Aide dressing involves the placing of fertilizers by hand at the sides of plants.

Proper Incorporation

Urea fertilizer should be placed in a hole dug beside the maize plant. The hole should be covered with soil after placing the urea fertilizer there. Burying of urea fertilizer in the soil makes it more effective for plants. It also prevents evaporation and leaching.


Urea fertilizer should be stored in a cool and dry place, far away from animals as it can be dangerous if ingested. Farmers applying urea fertilizer to their plants should use gloves and eye googles.

About Urea Fertilizer

Urea is a white crystalline solid fertilizer with 46% nitrogen content. Urea fertilizer primarily supplies nitrogen to plants. Nitrogen is used in the vegetative development stage of plants.

Urea is the fertilizer with the highest content of nitrogen in the world. In Nigeria, urea fertilizer is one of the most popular fertilizers used by farmers.

The following are the chemical properties of urea fertilizer:

  • Nitrogen content: 46-49%
  • Moisture: 0.1%

How do you apply urea fertilizer for your maize plants? Please share your responses with us in the comments’ section.

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